The archaeological complex of Nuraghe Losa has been the subject of several excavation campaigns since the late 19th century and in the course of the 20th century.
It has not been brought to light completely, but there have been highlighted above all the megalithic structures of the Nuragic period. There still remains to be investigated both the original cluster of Nuragic dwellings and those laid upon them in subsequent ages.
The prehistoric core structure consists of a tholos tomb (nuraga) of a complex three-lobed leave type, standing out in the upper floor area. The nuraga consists of a truncated conical main tower around which are arranged three smaller towers connected by curtain walls in a concave-convex contour.
Unlike other nuraghi having a complex structure, the Nuraghe Losa does not have a courtyard, namely the uncovered space on the inside which connects the rooms. The nuraga opens on the outside with two raised entrances at countryside level: the main one to the south east enters the room of the main tower through a corridor which also links with the rooms of the two side towers; the secondary one to the north enters the room of the back tower which in turn connects on its own by means of a stairway to the peak of the nuraga.
Among the inner rooms the middle room is noted for its width. It preserves intact the tholos (false dome) and has three niches on the walls. A stairway, contained in the thick of the central tower’s walls, rises in a spiral to link this room with the upper chamber and with the peak of the same tower.
On the outside, the nuraga is joined on one side to a stretch of rampart fortified with towers. Opposite the main entrance of the nuraga stands a large circular building with two entrances and two niches. The area of the settlement, ranging for some three and a half acres, is totally surrounded by massive walls fitted with some doors and turrets.
The artefacts recovered till now allow the dating of the oldest stages in the life of the complex at the end of the Middle Bronze and Late Bronze Age (14th – 13th cent. BC). The Final Bronze Age (12th – 10th cent. BC) and Early Iron Age (9th – 8th cent. BC) saw a quantity of ceramic and bronze artefacts such as to indicate a strong presence. The site was occupied in hitorical times too: from the Late Punic period (4th – 3rd cent. BC) to the Republican Roman period (2nd – 1st cent. BC), to the Imperial Roman period (1st – 3rd cent. AD), to the Late Roman period (4th – 5th cent. AD), until the Byzantine Age (6th – 8th cent. AD).
LILLIU, Giovanni, La civiltà dei Sardi, Edizioni Il Maestrale, Nuoro, 2003.
SANTONI, Vincenzo, Il nuraghe Losa di Abbasanta, collana Sardegna Archeologica, Carlo Delfino editore, Sassari, 2004.